Parent support groups

Parents of a child on the autism spectrum often attend a support group where other parents understand they issues they face. These groups may take the form of providing relevant information, relating personal experiences, listening to others’ experiences, providing sympathetic understanding and establishing social networks. A support group may also provide ancillary support, such as serving as a voice for the public or engaging in advocacy.

What Next?

If you have recently been diagnosed with autism or you think that you may be Autistic, there are a few steps you can take to move forward. First, it is important to educate yourself about autism and what it means for you. There are many resources available, such as books, websites, and support groups, that can provide you with information and support. You may also want to talk to a therapist or counselor who specializes in working with individuals with autism.

In addition, it may be helpful to reach out to friends, family members, and others who can support you and understand what you are going through. It is also important to take care of yourself and engage in activities that are enjoyable and beneficial to you. This may include exercise, hobbies, or other activities that help you relax and de-stress.

Overall, being diagnosed with autism can be a challenging and emotional experience, but it can also provide you with the opportunity to learn more about yourself and seek the support you need.

One step may be to look into more online resources or books. Amazon have, for example, I Think I Might Be Autistic: A Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis and Self-Discovery for Adults

Stair an Uathachais

Seo amlíne ghairid a dhéanann cur síos ar mhórfhorbairtí i stair an uathachais, lena n-áirítear cinn eolaíocha, athruithe ar dhearcadh an phobail agus conspóidí:

  • 1908: Chum an síciatraí Gearmánach Eugene Bleuler an téarma “uathachas” chun cur síos a dhéanamh ar chomharthaí roinnt cásanna tromchúiseacha scitsifréine. Déantar cur síos ar an uathachas mar rud a théann siar go dtí an saol inmheánach chun aghaidh a thabhairt ar chruas na réaltachta.
  • 1943: D’aithin Leo Kanner, síciatraí leanaí ag Scoil an Leighis Ollscoil Johns Hopkins, uathachas mar neamhord síceolaíoch ar leith i leanaí. Chuir Kanner síos air mar uathachas naíonán luath, arb iad is sainairíonna é comharthaí lena n-áirítear obsessiveness, easnaimh in iompar sóisialta agus gá le céannacht.
  • 1944: Rinne Hans Asperger, péidiatraiceoir in Ollscoil Vín, cur síos ar ghrúpa comharthaí den chineál céanna agus chum sé an téarma “síceapaite uathachasach.” Bhí suim ar leith ag Asperger i ndaoine aonair ardfheidhmíochta a léirigh easnaimh shóisialta.
  • 1967: Bhí teoiric ag Kanner agus daoine eile gur eascair uathachas as droch-thuismitheoireacht i mblianta tosaigh an linbh. De réir alt a d’fhoilsigh Kanner, b’fhéidir go raibh máithreacha atá fuar go mothúchánach (nó “cuisneoir”) freagrach as comharthaí uathachais ina gcuid leanaí. Bhí Bruno Bettelheim ina mholtóir ar an teoiric seo agus rinne sé an-tóir ar smaoineamh na máithreacha cuisniúcháin.
  • 1977: Fuair ​​​​staidéar a rinne Susan Folstein agus Michael Rutter amach go raibh seans ard ann go dtarlódh uathachas i gceann cúpla dá mbeadh uathachas ag a gcúpla comhionann. I gcás cúpla nach ionann iad, áfach, níor tharla uathachas ar bith sa bheirt deartháireacha. Léirigh an staidéar seo go bhfuil ról tábhachtach ag géineolaíocht i bhforbairt uathachais, ag tabhairt dúshlán don tuairim gur droch-thuismitheoireacht ba chúis leis an uathachas.
  • 1980: Chuaigh Uathachas isteach sa Lámhleabhar Diagnóiseach agus Staitistiúil um Neamhoird Meabhrach mar aonán ar leith. Aithníodh uathachas mar neamhord forbraíochta scartha ón scitsifréine, agus baineadh gaolta roimhe seo le láithreacht siabhránachtaí. Roinneadh uathachas i gceithre fhochatagóir: uathachas naíonán, uathachas iarmharach, neamhord forleatach forleatach ó thús na hóige agus foirm aitíopúil.
  • 1987: Rinneadh athbhreithniú ar an DSM-III i 1987 chun coincheap an uathachais a leathnú, agus leathnaíodh na critéir chun comharthaí níos séimhe a chur san áireamh. An bhliain chéanna, d’fhoilsigh Ivar Lovaas, ceannródaí na hanailíse iompraíochta feidhmeacha, staidéar a léirigh feabhas ar na hairíonna a bhaineann le leanaí uathacha tar éis dianteiripe iompraíochta.
  • 1988: Bhí an scannán “Rain Man” bunaithe ar scéal fear uathachais, Raymond Babbitt, arna léiriú ag Dustin Hoffman. Mhéadaigh an scannán seo feasacht an phobail ar neamhord speictrim an uathachais, ach chruthaigh sé steiréitíopa freisin maidir le cumais daoine a bhfuil uathachas orthu.
  • 1990: I 1990, rith Comhdháil na SA reachtaíocht chun uathachas a áireamh sa chatagóir míchumas oideachais. Chuidigh sé seo le daoine aonair a bhfuil uathachas orthu cáiliú d’oideachas speisialta.
  • 1994: Scaoileadh an DSM-4 le siondróm Asperger curtha leis mar fhochatagóir ar leith de neamhord speictrim uathachais.
  • 1998: D’eisigh Andrew Wakefield agus a chomhghleacaithe tuarascáil san iris Lancet a thug le fios go bhféadfadh an vacsaín bruitíneach, leicneach agus bruitíneach dhearg (MMR) leanaí a chur i mbaol uathachais. Ní raibh ach 12 ábhar i gceist leis an staidéar agus ní raibh rialuithe eolaíocha ann, ach fuair sé aird fhorleathan sna meáin. Tháinig laghdú ar rátaí vacsaínithe MMR dá bharr.
  • 2001: Cuireadh deireadh le húsáid thimerosal, leasaitheach mearcair-bhunaithe a úsáidtear i vacsaíní, i vacsaíní óige. Tharla sé seo mar gheall ar an tuairimíocht maidir leis an gcomhlachas idir thimerosal agus uathachas. Thuairiscigh go leor staidéir eolaíocha nach bhfuil aon bhaint idir thimerosal agus uathachas.
  • 2009: Léirigh staidéar a foilsíodh in 2014 ag na hIonaid um Rialú agus Cosc ar Ghalair (CDC) go raibh uathachas ag 1 as gach 59 leanbh. Léirigh suirbhé comhchosúil a rinne an CDC in 2002 go raibh uathachas ag gach 1 as 150 leanbh. Creidtear gurb é is cúis leis an ardú seo ar uathachas ná feasacht mhéadaithe uathachais agus athruithe ar chritéir diagnóis uathachais. Mar sin féin, d’fhéadfadh fachtóirí bitheolaíocha cosúil le tuismitheoirí a bhfuil leanaí acu ag aois níos sine a bheith freagrach as an méadú.
  • 2013: Eisíodh an DSM-5, a chomhcheangail na fochatagóirí uathachais go léir in aonán diagnóiseach amháin ar a dtugtar “neamhord speictrim an uathachais.” Rinneadh é seo chun aghaidh a thabhairt ar neamhréireachtaí sna critéir a úsáidtear chun diagnóis a dhéanamh.

Uathachas Inniu

Cé go raibh go leor dul chun cinn eolaíoch déanta, tá i bhfad níos mó le foghlaim faoi na cúiseanna, an diagnóis agus na modhanna cóireála is fearr don uathachas. Tá taighde reatha ar uathachas dírithe go príomha ar ghéinte a aimsiú a chuireann daoine roimh uathachas. Áirítear le hiarrachtaí eile iarracht a dhéanamh teacht ar dhifríochtaí i ngníomhaíocht inchinne a bhaineann go sonrach le daoine a bhfuil uathachas orthu. Tá roinnt taighde dírithe ar fhachtóirí réamhbhreithe a aithint a chuireann uathachas ar nuabheirthe.

Athraíonn déine agus cineál na hairíonna a bhíonn i láthair i ndaoine le huathachas, agus ní oibríonn an chóireáil chéanna do gach duine. Tá taighde ar siúl faoi láthair chun bealaí chun cóireáil a indibhidiú a mheas.

Go ginearálta úsáidtear cineálacha cur chuige cóireála neamh-chógais éagsúla, lena n-áirítear teiripe urlabhra, teiripe shaothair agus teiripe iompraíochta, chun aghaidh a thabhairt ar chomharthaí uathachais. Tá teiripe iompraíochta feidhmeach ar cheann de na cuir chuige is éifeachtaí, ag múineadh do dhaoine a bhfuil uathachas orthu iompraíochtaí diúltacha a sheachaint agus iompraíochtaí dearfacha a léiriú. Cuimsíonn teiripe iompraíochta feidhmeach scileanna cumarsáide agus sóisialta a theagasc freisin. Tá roinnt taighde dírithe ar bhealaí a fheabhsú le leanaí a bhfuil uathachas orthu a chur i ngleic i suíomh ranga.

I measc na gcur chuige míochaine tá úsáid frith-shícotach cosúil le risperidone agus aripiprazole, agus tá cógais eile á bhfiosrú faoi láthair. Meastar go bhfuil daoine le huathachas tar éis cur isteach ar leibhéil excitation agus coiscthe san inchinn, agus tá drugaí nua a chuireann na leibhéil seo ar ais á imscrúdú freisin. Ós rud é go bhfuil baint ag athruithe sa chóras imdhíonachta le huathachas, tá taighdeoirí ag fiosrú freisin drugaí frith-athlastacha a rialaíonn an córas imdhíonachta. Fuarthas athruithe ar an ngabhdóir nicotín-aicetylcholine freisin i ndaoine a bhfuil uathachas orthu. Tá taighdeoirí ag féachaint an bhféadfadh acmhainneacht theiripeach a bheith ag drugaí nó nicotín féin.

Uaireanta is féidir le neamhord ar speictream an uathachais comhtharlú le neamhoird úsáide substaintí.

How accurate is the AQ test?

The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is a self-report measure of the traits associated with autism. It was designed to identify individuals who may be on the autism spectrum, but it is not a diagnostic tool and should not be used to diagnose autism. It is important to note that the AQ is not a definitive test and the results should be considered in conjunction with a comprehensive evaluation by a qualified healthcare professional.

If you scored 32 or more on the AQ, it could mean that you have traits that are commonly associated with autism. However, it is important to note that the AQ is just one tool that can be used to help identify individuals who may be on the autism spectrum. It is not a diagnostic test and should not be used as the sole basis for a diagnosis of autism. If you are concerned about your score on the AQ or if you think you may be on the autism spectrum, it is important to speak with a qualified healthcare professional for a comprehensive evaluation.

Note: it makes no difference to your score whether you choose slightly or definitely, so treat the statements as a binary choice agree and disagree.

Validity

How reliable, accurate, valid, and up to date is the test?
The AQ correctly scores autistics (both male and female) higher than neurotypicals.

Research shows that the AQ is a quick tool to identify where a person is situated on the continuum from autism to neurotypicality and not how autistic they are. Neurotypicals can score high

Outdated

In 2017, the following items were proven unrepresentative measures of autistic traits, thus needing revision.

Researchers thought that autistics would agree with the following questions, but we don’t necessarily:

  • 9. I am fascinated by dates.
  • 21. I don’t particularly enjoy reading fiction.

And researchers thought that autistics would disagree with the following questions, but again, we don’t necessarily:

  • 29. I am not very good at remembering phone numbers.
  • 30. I don’t usually notice small changes in a situation, or a person’s appearance.
  • 49. I am not very good at remembering people’s date of birth.

See also:

⚪ Alexithymia

To read more on alexithymia and aspects of this construct that are commonly mistaken for autism, have a look at this website: Alexithymia & autism guide

The history of Autism

The History of Autism

Here is a brief timeline describing major developments in the history of autism, including scientific breakthroughs, changes in public perception and controversies:

  • 1908: The German psychiatrist Eugene Bleuler coined the term “autism” to describe symptoms of some severe schizophrenia cases. Autism described as retreating to the inner life to avoid facing the harshness of reality.
  • 1943: Leo Kanner, a child psychiatrist at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, identified autism as a separate psychological disorder in children. Kanner described it as early infantile autism, characterized by symptoms including obsessiveness, deficits in social behavior and a need for sameness.
  • 1944: Hans Asperger, a pediatrician at the University of Vienna, described a similar group of symptoms and coined the term “autistic psychopathy.” Asperger was particularly interested in high-functioning individuals who showed social deficits.
  • 1967: Kanner and others theorized that autism stemmed from poor parenting in a child’s early years. According to an article published by Kanner, emotionally cold (or “refrigerator” mothers) may have been responsible for the symptoms of autism in their children. Bruno Bettelheim was a proponent of this theory and popularized the idea of refrigerator mothers.
  • 1977: A study conducted by Susan Folstein and Michael Rutter found that autism had a high chance of occurring in one twin if their identical twin had autism. In the case of non-identical twins, however, there were no occurrences of autism in both siblings. This study showed that genetics plays an important role in the development of autism, challenging the view that autism was caused by bad parenting.
  • 1980: Autism entered the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a separate entity. Autism was recognized as a developmental disorder separate from schizophrenia, and previous associations with the presence of hallucinations were removed. Autism was divided into four subcategories: infantile autism, residual autism, childhood-onset pervasive developmental disorder and an atypical form.
  • 1987: The DSM-III was revised in 1987 to broaden the concept of autism, and the criteria were expanded to include milder symptoms. The same year, Ivar Lovaas, the pioneer of applied behavioral analysis, published a study showing an improvement in the symptoms of autistic children after intensive behavioral therapy.
  • 1988: The movie “Rain Man” revolved around the story of an autistic savant, Raymond Babbitt, portrayed by Dustin Hoffman. This movie increased public awareness about autism spectrum disorder, but it also generated a stereotype regarding the abilities of people with autism.
  • 1990: In 1990, the U.S. Congress passed legislation to include autism in the category of education disability. This helped individuals with autism qualify for special education.
  • 1994: The DSM-4 was released with Asperger’s syndrome added as a separate subcategory of autism spectrum disorder.
  • 1998: Andrew Wakefield and his colleagues released a report in the Lancet journal suggesting that the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine may predispose children to autism. The study involved only 12 subjects and did not have scientific controls, but it received widespread media attention. This resulted in a decline in MMR vaccination rates.
  • 2001: Use of thimerosal, a mercury-based preservative used in vaccines, was discontinued in childhood vaccines. This was due to the speculation regarding the association between thimerosal and autism. Many scientific studies have reported that there is no association between thimerosal and autism.
  • 2009: A study published in 2014 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) showed that 1 in every 59 children had autism. A similar survey conducted by the CDC in 2002 indicated that every 1 in 150 children had autism. This rise in autism is believed to be caused by increased autism awareness and changes in autism diagnosis criteria. However, biological factors such as parents having children at an older age may also be responsible for the increase.
  • 2013: The DSM-5 was released, which combined all the subcategories of autism into a single diagnostic entity called the “autism spectrum disorder.” This was done to address inconsistencies in the criteria used in diagnosis.

Autism Today

Although much scientific progress had been made, there is much more to learn about the causes, diagnosis and best treatment methods of autism. Current research on autism is primarily focused on finding genes that predispose people to autism. Other efforts include trying to find differences in brain activity that are specific to people with autism. Some research is aimed at identifying prenatal factors that predispose newborns to autism.

The severity and the type of symptoms present in people with autism vary widely, and the same treatment does not work for everyone. Research is currently underway to assess ways to individualize treatment.

Various non-medication treatment approaches, including speech therapy, occupational therapy and behavioral therapy, are generally used to address autism symptoms. Applied behavioral therapy has been one of the most effective approaches, teaching people with autism to avoid negative behaviors and display positive ones. Applied behavioral therapy also involves teaching communication and social skills. Some research is focused on improving ways to engage children with autism in a classroom setting.

Medicinal approaches include the use of antipsychotics like risperidone and aripiprazole, and other medications are currently being investigated. People with autism are considered to have disrupted excitation and inhibition levels in the brain, and new drugs that restore these levels are also being investigated. Since changes in the immune system are associated with autism, researchers are also investigating anti-inflammatory drugs that regulate the immune system. Alterations to the nicotine-acetylcholine receptor have also been found in people with autism. Researchers are looking into whether drugs or nicotine itself can have therapeutic potential.

Autism spectrum disorder can sometimes co-occur with substance use disorders.